Any recent journal articles on Conductive Education ?

I have been doing a little hunt round to see how many journal articles on Conductive Education have been published in the last five years. I did this once before, when I  found five articles of note, see


This time my search revealed more, as you can see below:

KELEMEN, A., and others (2013) In vitro fertilization and cerebral palsy; the Pető Institute experience. Practice and Theory in Systems of Education, 8 (3), pp.231-238.

NOVAK, I., and others (2013) A systematic review of interventions for children with cerebral palsy: state of the evidence. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55(10), October, pp. 885–910.

HERSKIND, A., and others (2014) Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 57(1), January, pp. 29–36.

HORVÁTHNÉ, K. S.,and others (2014) Doktori kutátosok a Pető intézetben [Doctoral studies at the Pető Institute] Iskolakultura,12(4) pp. 20-34

SCHENKER, R. and SUTTON, A.  (2014) Researching Conductive Education. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 56(4), April, pp.402-403.

ABBASKHANIAN, A., and others (2015) Rehabilitation interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Journal of Pediatrics Review, January; 3(1):e361. DOI: 10.5812/jpr.361 Published online, 20 January 2015.

ORAVECZ, A. (2015) A Pető Intézet Integrációt segítő mindennapos tevékenysége itthon és külföldön. Különleges Bánásmód, I(4), pp., 49-64

BEK, J., and others (2016) Conductive Education as a method of stroke rehabilitation: a single blinded randomised controlled feasibility study. Stroke Research and Treatment, Published online 2016 Jun 23. doi:  10.1155/2016/5391598

SCHENKER, R., and others (2016) Is a family-centred initiative a family-centred service? A case of a Conductive Education setting for children with cerebral palsy. Child care health and development, (42) 6, November, pp. 909–917. [Abstract only]

2016 also brought the publication of a new online journal by the PAF, Tudomány és hivatás, producing two issues so far

It is worth noting that the two systematic  reviews  only referred to CE briefly, concentrating on other systems.

All items are entered in the Virtual catalogue.

Conductive Education gets a mention

I have frequently asked for more to be published about Conductive Education and today I see that mention has been made of it in a ‘proper’ refereed journal, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.

Andrew Sutton has blogged about a letter he and Rony Schenker have written in response to an article published about research which made an ‘apparently authoritative judgement on Conductive Education’. But not in a good way.

The blog posting, which includes the reference to the original research article,   can be found at

Conductive Education appearing in unexpected places

I was searching for more references for the Virtual Library catalogue and  found one in an unexpected place. An online journal, Advances in Bio-Medical Sciences. On checking the list of references in this article, I found another unexpected source, the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 

On going to the second journal’s website I found membership is needed to find out more and so I have written in to ask for help.

I will let you know how I get on.

It shows how  articles are now popping up in all sorts of publications.

Have you found any?


Olama, K. (2013) Role of Conductive Education on gait in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Advances in Bio-medical Sciences

Patriquin D.A .(2000) Conductive Education approaches to cerebral palsy. J Am Osteopath. Assoc. 12 : 92-95.

Recent articles on Conductive Education in journals

Today on Facebook I saw a note by Andrew Sutton that a new article on Conductive Education had been published in an academic journal so I followed the link given and it is now in the Virtual Library’s catalogue on  Conduction’s website. (see below)

Andrew also asked when there had last been an article on Conductive Education published in a journal.
 Recent Advances in Conductive Education which aimed to encourage reports of developments worldwide and  spread information about the practice of Conductive Education ceased publication in 2008 and no other journal devoted to the subject exists.
There have been numerous ephemeral reports in newspapers and magazines recently but those in academic journals that I am aware of are:

one in 2008, by Brittle and others on adults in Clinical Rehabilitation

and three in 2010 :
The first in Physiothrapy and Practice by Effgen and Chan on children and gross motor behaviors

and another in the Israeli Journal of Occupational Therapy. a comparative study by Schenker and others

and an evaluation by Tuersley-Dixon and Frederiskson  in Educational Psychology and Practice at

Now we have the first for 2012 by Lotan and others in Developmental Neurorehabilitation  at

All these items are entered in the Virtual library catalogue. Not many, but more than I thought. If I have missed any, please let me know.

Articles often come from academic institutions where there is encouragement to publish, or as a result of research, and I wonder how many such projects are yet to be written up and published. If you know of any, again, please let me know.

Snippets and memories about Mária Hári on the Internet

 After including the bibliography of Mária Hári in the Conduction website Depository  at
 I thought it might be worth searching the Internet for other shorter virtual pieces about her. The list below is the result which is  rather disappointing as there are few contributors.
I was not able to find anything on the Pető  Institute website at all.
If I have missed anything, please do let me know and then I can include it.

Anon (2001) Obituary in Nursery World

Borbely, A. (n.d.) Dr. Maria Hari
Mallett, S. (2010) Thinking about or remembering

Mallett, S. (2010) Maria Hari on conductive pedagogy

Mallett, S. (2011) Remembering Dr Maria Hari

Mallett, S. (2011) Making the rounds at the PAI

Perrin, N. (2010) Remembering Dr Hari

Sutton, A. (2006) Notes towards a history of Conductive Education

Sutton, A. (2008) Maria Hari on Conductive Education

Sutton, A. (2009) Maria Hari at the Palace of Westminster

Sutton, A. (2010) A Doktornő – a pedagógus

Sutton, A. (2010) One of Maria’s favourites

Sutton, A. (2010) Remember Maria

Sutton, A. (2010) Mention of Maria strikes a chord

Sutton, A. (2010) Hari, Nietsche,Kant, Sinatra memento mori – memento vitae

Sutton, A. (2010) Emlékezés [translation in to Hungarian of Nietsche,Kant, Sinatra memento mori – memento vitae

Sutton, A. (2011) Turning in the grave

Sutton, A. (2011) Maria Hari in her prime

Sutton, A. (2011) A night at the theatre

Sutton, A. (2011) Hariana 5 – Speaking out – what is and what is not CE?

Sutton, A. (2011) Hariana 6 – Disciples awake -provide the means to touch others

Sutton, A.(2011) Hariana 7 – Obituaries – I marked it my way

Sutton, A. (2011) On Hari – and Peto

More articles on Conductive Education which are still free

I have just spent a couple of hours adding some new items to the virtual catalogue that are still available free on the Internet at
If you have a look you will see that this search produces  40 items but some of them are just announcements of courses, conferences or little pieces about events. Others are much meatier and these have been added to the virtual catalogue  at
The contents of this catalogoe are growing steadily and now there are almost three hundred items, with still more to be added.

Found it!

Andrew Sutton has been looking for an article on Conductive Education published in December, and I am very pleased to say that I have managed to obtain a copy which I will let him have.

This article is titled ‘Conductive Education: appraising the evidence’  and is published in Educational Psychology in Practice, the journal of the Association of Educational Psychologists (full reference at the end of this posting.)
It includes the results of a literature search on two databases, neither educational, and produces these results  in a table. Most of the results are quite old , dating back to the early 1990s ad I can’t help wondering if the authors visited the National Library of  Conductive Education (which contains more up to date material)  or are even aware of its existence.  Still, I am very pleased to be able to say that despite not having the resources around me I was able to track this down. One up for the Librarians, I think!

Tuersley-Dixon, L. and Frederickson, N. (2010) Conductive Education: appraising the evidence. Educational Psychology in Practice , 26(4), pp.253-373.

Results of searching for articles in Cerebral Palsy Magazine

I spent a couple of hours yesterday searching the wayback machine
This is an Internet archive of ‘snapshots’ taken of websites’ pages on given days and sometimes also includes material that is linked to on those pages. All you need to know to get started is the URL of the site you are looking for.  It is a wonderful tool for finding material that has been removed from the Internet but can be a bit hit and miss as I have discovered.
I was hunting for certain articles  in Cerebral Palsy Magazine. There were four articles on Conductive Education published in the magazine between 2003 and 2008 but I was only able to find the full text for one of them, the one about conductor training written by Andrew Sutton in 2004. This has now been entered in the virtual catalogue. Not a bad percentage, I suppose but still disappointing.
I hope to be able to track the others down by other means – if possible.

Final issue of RACE journal now available

When the journal, Recent Advances in Conductive Education, edited by Andrew Sutton and myself, was started in 2001, it aimed to publish original research and facilitate continuing professional development for conductors and everyone with a concern for Conductive Education worldwide. Over the last eight years it has strived to do this.
As it has become more difficult to obtain material for publication and the practicalities of putting an issue together more arduous, it was decided, reluctantly, to finish the run with volume 7 number 2. A detailed explanation of this decision is given in the editorial of this last issue.

This has now been published. It was due out in December 2008 but due to unforeseen circumstances, has been delayed until now.

The final formatting and technical production was completed by Elliot Clifton, and Andrew and I went into the National Institute of Conductive Education (as it was open on Friday morning) and copied, stapled and finished the production process. All those with subscriptions should receive their copy shortly.

The contents consist of an editorial, two articles and two book reviews as follows:



Reflections upon conductive upbringing A pedagogic essay – Susie Mallett

Abstract: In the English-speaking world since the late nineteen-sixties, the term ‘Conductive Education’ has largely displaced the concept of ‘conductive upbringing’ (English translation of the system’s Hungarian name), with unknown effects upon how this work is perceived. Drawing from her personal experience as a trainee-conductor at the Peto Institute in Budapest, at the start of the nineties, the author describes the total conductive upbringing that Hungarian children and conductors shared there, the children being brought up by conductors largely apart from their families. Foreign children experienced a different, less total regime that parents soon sought to export home. Drawing then upon her subsequent, experience, working as a conductor in Germany, she presents the principles of her goals on developing her own practice for conductive upbringing, as total as what she knew at the Peto Institute but family-based rather that institutional. Three case studies describe a to-date eleven-year involvement with one family of a child with cerebral palsy and a much shorter, intervention, of one year, with another. In the third, the term ‘conductive lifestyle’ is suggested as more appropriate than ‘upbringing’ when speaking of adult work, and a to-date twelve-year involvement with the life of a lady who has had a stroke is described.

Management report: Conductive Education programs in North America – David C. Dvorak

Abstract: Development of Conductive Education services across North America has been driven by parents of children with motor disorders seeking to establish Conductive Education programs local to their homes. During 2006-7, some fifty programs were found in various listings. Only thirty were found to be operational, twenty-five of which responded to brief enquiry on the management challenges that they experienced. Center administrators’ responses clustered mainly in five areas, finance, conductors, overall management, leadership and marketing/publicity. Respondents also offered suggestions as to how these issues might be addressed, helping in the creation of a Management Report on Conductive Education Programs in North America.


Eva Beck – Feladatsorok a konduktív nevelésben – reviewed by Tunde Rozsahegyi

Nia Wyn – Blue Sky July – reviewed by Gayle Westcott

The end of something is always a mixture of sadness and celebration and the three of us involved in the journal over the years feel both in equal measure. Sad that its the last issue, and pleased to have finally completed it. I would like to convey the editors’ appreciation and thanks to Elliot who helped so much in a voluntary capacity with all the technical bits we did not understand.

Perhaps the journal may be restarted in the future or replaced by another publication – we shall have to wait and see.

Anyone interested in purchasing a copy of this issue or any of the previous issues, should contact Melanie Brown at the Foundation for Conductive Education

To share or not to share, that is the question

Andrew Sutton’s blog postings referring to the lack of conductor participation in conferences reluctance to write, evaluate, and ask questions about CE has prompted some strong reactions.

The point that financial considerations can limit participation at conferences is a valid one and probably goes a long way to explaining the lack of conductors at conferences.

For example, for a conductor working in the UK to attend the World Congress next December in Hong Kong he/she would need to outlay 1500 pound sterling at least. And do it in advance, to book a place and a plane seat.

As to recording and sharing knowledge, it was suggested that information should not be shared as it encourages others to start their own practice when they are not qualified to do so. Surely other professions, such as doctors, dentists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, do this without such fears or predicted results? Most people realise that you can’t learn how to do something like this from just reading a book, paper or seeing a film, realise that more in-depth knowledge is needed and this is provided by training. Otherwise there would be no need for training in anything- we could all learn by reading.

I think it is important to build a literature, to record practice either in paper form, on the Internet or on film. Collecting such material is what librarians do , bringing it together to make it easily accessible for those who want to learn more. If everyone refused to tell their ‘secrets’ the world would be a poorer and less knowledgeable place. As Tunde says, that is what helps to build respect for CE from other professions, and encourage researchers to investigate. I have asked hundreds of times over the years for conductors to write about their profession with little result. In fact, my last blog was on this topic. It took eighteen years to build the collection held in the National Library. This includes material at all levels, some well written, presenting CE ‘properly‘, and some not doing so well, but still helping to build a comparative literature, a basis for further study.

I heard an item on the radio last week about the statistics of domestic violence. Apparently some figures were being quoted by respected sources about this which had been obtained from an inaccurate report. No-one had queried their accuracy, even though the figures were unexpectedly high, before going on to refer to it. It made me think of Conductive Education and how this happens in a similar way.Because the people who know what it is, how it works etc don’t write it down and provide basic accurate information for those who wish to know more and understand it, so others use papers and books containing inaccurate facts in their research and thus compound the initial mistake.

So come on conductors, give it a go and help your profession move forward to a better acceptance and higher regard. Sharing can only help CE, not hinder.